The teacher's interventions and communications
Competition games

Observation and assessment of a collective sport poses a real problem of data collection.


The assessment is made in a match situation. We put in place some formulas to enable both collective and individual assessment at hte same time. See on this subject tournaments with teams of various partners.

Video is really the only way to realise the complexity of simultaneous and successive actions but this tool is not easy to use.

The collective can be assessed by noting its results:

  • The way points are won or lost.
  • Places where points are lost in defence.

Most of the time, to move towards individual assessment, which will in turn enlighten the collective result, we stick to highlighting the quality of interventions on the ball (success or failure). However, this data explains nothing. We suggest mainly focusing the assessment on the actions without a ball at different stages of the game using the markers we have developped with trajectory timings and engagement times.

See the resource on
engagement times

To each phase of the game corresponds a signal and movements, precise orientations. Using engagement times as a reference we can elaborate a simple observation card.

We start in the beginning with a particular point (limited and identifies phases) then gradually a more and more complete series of actions. For example we note during a game period at which moments a player stops being an actor (preparation attitudes, orientation, information gathering, placements, movements) to become spectator of the game (brief breaks in the previously listed processes).

This observation seems difficult in the beginning. We must fight the tendancy to watch the ball. But this analysis is very productive. It is also good training when the players do it themselves by observing 1 player for the duration of a set. This enables them to realise the determining factors of the actions outside the hits.

Service is a particular hit which enable assessments on target. At a more advanced level the server should be able to define a target within a tactical project for example during time outs.

See the resource on
representations of the target to defend

Observation and analysis of matches:

We can see here 31 match sequences played in competition by school association players in order to practice observation and analysis.

We can consider the match situation as a situation of reference where all the required abilities are represented. It asks for all of the players' resources, be they physical, technical and tactical or mental.

These video sequences are a volley-ball training session but training designed for teachers and trainers. Inserted text guides the observation but don't hesitate to rewind, slow down or stop the image.

As the player has to sort the relevant information to play, the trainer has to eliminate non essential facts and focus on indicators that explain the success or the error and will guide his intervention later.

The latter will depend to a great extent upon his ability to read the game in real situation. This ability can be trained.

Click and your session begins!

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